The Helios Team at 360 SkyEye Labs revealed that a group named OnionDog has been infiltrating and stealing information from the energy, transportation and other infrastructure industries of Korean-language countries through the Internet.
OnionDog’s first activity can be traced back to October, 2013 and in the following two years it was only active between late July and early September. The self-set life cycle of a Trojan attack is 15 days on average and is distinctly organizational and objective-oriented.
OnionDog malware is transmitted by taking advantage of the vulnerability of the popular office software Hangul in Korean-language countries, and it attacked network-isolated targets through a USB worm.
Targeting the infrastructure industry
OnionDog concentrated its efforts on infrastructure industries in Korean-language countries. In 2015 this organization mainly attacked harbors, VTS, subways, public transportation and other transportation systems. In 2014 it attacked many electric power and water resources corporations as well as other energy enterprises.
The Helios Team has found 96 groups of malicious code, 14 C&C domain names and IP related to OnionDog. It first surfaced in October 2013, and then was most active in the summers of the following years. The Trojan set its own “active state” time and the shortest was be three days and maximum twenty nine days, from compilation to the end of activity. The average life cycle is 15 days, which makes it more difficult for the victim enterprises to notice and take actions than those active for longer period of time.
OnionDog’s attacks are mainly carried out in the form of spear phishing emails. The early Trojan used icons and file numbers to create a fake HWP file (Hangul’s file format). Later on, the Trojan used a vulnerability in an upgraded version of Hangul, which imbeds malicious code in a real HWP file. Once the file is opened, the vulnerability will be triggered to download and activate the Trojan.
Since most infrastructure industries, such as the energy industry, generally adopt intranet isolation measures, OnionDog uses the USB disk drive ferry to break the false sense of security of physical isolation. In the classic APT case of the Stuxnet virus, which broke into an Iranian nuclear power plant, the virus used an employee’s USB disk to circumvent network isolation. OnionDog also used this channel and generated USB worms to infiltrate the target internal network.
“OCD-type” intensive organization
In the Malicious Code activities of OnionDog, there are strict regulations:
First, the Malicious Code has strict naming rules starting from the path of created PDB (symbol file). For example, the path for USB worm is APT-USB, and the path for spear mail file is APT-WebServer;
When the OnionDog Trojan is successfully released, it will communicate to a C&C (Trojan server), download other malware and save them in the %temp% folder and use “XXX_YYY.jpg” uniformly as the file name. These names have their special meaning and usually point to the target.
All signs show that OnionDog has strict organization and arrangement across its attack time, target, vulnerability exploration and utilization, and malicious code. At the same time, it is very cautious about covering up its tracks.
In 2014, OnionDog used many fixed IPs in South Korea as its C&C sites. Of course, this does not mean that the attacker is located in South Korea. These IPs could be used as puppets and jumping boards. By 2015, OnionDog website communications were upgraded to Onion City across the board. This is so far a relatively more advanced and covert method of network communication among APT attacks.
Onion City means that the deep web searching engine uses Tor2web agent technology to visit the anonymous Tor network deeply without using the Onion Brower specifically. And OnionDog uses the Onion City to hide the Trojan-controlling server in the Tor network.
In recent years, APT attacks on infrastructure facilities and large-scale enterprises have frequently emerged. Some that attack an industrial control system, such as Stuxnet, Black Energy and so on, can have devastating results. Some attacks are for the purpose of stealing information, such as the Lazarus hacker organization jointly revealed by Kaspersky, AlienVault lab and Novetta, and OnionDog which was recently exposed by the 360 Helios team. These secret cybercrimes can cause similarly serious losses as well.