The threat actor has compromised more than 100 online shops, including that of UK book publishing house Faber and Faber, clothing/fitness company Everlast, GUESS Australia, fashion brand Rebecca Minkoff, beauty products retailer The Beauty Place, and many, many more.
Most of them have hopefully been cleaned by now but according to RiskIQ and ClearSky researchers, the campaign – which they dubbed Magecart – is still ongoing, albeit at a reduced scope and pace.
Magecart: A well-oiled machine
“They might have gained this access by exploiting a vulnerability in the web platform (such as Magento Commerce, Powerfront CMS, OpenCar, etc.) or by getting a hold of admin credentials.”
Then, they would change certain web pages’ code to make them load the malicious script from one of the many domains they set up to host it.
“The credit card stealer works in a very similar manner on the compromised web server as a banking trojan functions on a compromised victim workstation,” RiskIQ researchers point out.
“Code is injected which can ‘hook’ web forms and access data form submissions much like a formgrabber. Data is exfiltrated from the compromised server to a dropzone for attacker collection. There is also some indication in related payloads that attackers may be injecting bogus form fields into payment forms to solicit additional data from victims.”
The attackers have been refining the system for months. They’ve been testing obfuscation techniques (payload delivery in two stages, conditional activation of stealer scripts, etc.), renaming the malicious script to blend in with the site, registering attack domains with names that use the company’s name or that of commonplace web technologies, and so on.
They also made sure that the sites hosting the malicious code had a valid SSL certificate, so that the code would be served over HTTPS. As most online shops use SSL to protect users’ payment data, loading the malicious script from a HTTP site would trigger a “mixed content” warning, and make users suspicious.
What can we do about it?
Unfortunately, if you have bought products from one of these shops at a time when they were compromised, your payment card and other info has been slurped by the attackers.
The only way to prevent this type of attack is to use content whitelisting plugins such as NoScript, RiskIQ researchers note.
“These types of add-ons function by allowing the end user to specify which websites are ‘trusted’ and prevents the execution of scripts and other high-risk web content. Using such a tool, the malicious sites hosting the credit card stealer scripts would not be loaded by the browser, preventing the script logic from accessing payment card details,” they explained.
It’s also in the best interest of the owners and administrators of these (and all) types of websites to do their best to keep them secure by:
- Hardening their installations and shopping cart software implementations, and regularly updating them and patching them
- Keeping their credentials for accessing admin interfaces and underlying web hosting environments secure
- Using strong authentication schemes and 2-factor authentication or 2-step verification, and so on.